– [Announcer] As technology
and counterfeiting techniques have advanced, so too have
the individual efforts of countries to foolproof their money with things like serial
numbers and watermarks, but I’m not going to talk
about those obvious features. This video will show you
other hidden security features of your money that you
probably aren’t aware of. (xylophonic music) – Amazing! – Number 10, EURion constellation, otherwise known as omron
rings or doughnuts. This security protocol
consists of five small rings printed in contrasting inks, which depict the pattern
of the Orion constellation. These designs are often
repeated many times in different configurations and can be predominantly
seen on many Euro banknotes, hence the portmanteau Eurion. When a counterfeiter attempts to scan or photocopies said bills, these patterns are recognized by software and prevents hardware from printing them. This is one of the more secretive security functions in existence as the exact technical
details and it’s inventors have been kept secret. Though there is evidence that
it might have been developed by the Japanese owned Omron Corporation. Here’s just a few places you’ll find this. It’s on 10 and 20 pound notes, and on American $20 bills, as well as on the $2 bill from Singapore, and on the back of $20 Canadian bills. Number nine, microprinting. Another useful security precaution, this technique involves
well as the name suggests, printing designs at a
near microscopic level. The idea being that the
smaller the characters, the harder it would be for all but the most advanced printers
and scanners to duplicate, and invariably, result in
blurry or distorted text. Microtext, as it is commonly called, is so small that only
specifically designed printers are able to pull it off and tend to use a special ink called MICR, or Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. A good example of microprinting can be seen on the American $20 bill; in the lower left border as it reads: United States of America 20 USA 20; and inside the inner ring
of the zero that reads USA. Number eight, embossing indentation. Just to throw a monkey wrench in the plans of potential counterfeiters, many mints also like to include embossing in the production of their bills, especially for higher denominations. Embossing, or it’s opposite debossing, involves creating a reliefed pattern that stands out physically
from it background and can be easily identified by feeling for bumps or raised surfaces. Normally, this takes the
form of intaglio printing, which involves a metallic
plate being pressed into the substrate of a bill with the desired text or design while exposed to a high enough temperature to make the relief permanent without damaging the bill itself. The effect is a note that doesn’t feel entirely
flat and may be bumpy and is quite often on Euro bills, like the 5 Euro which has
an embossed main image and large value numeral as well as raised lines on
the left and right side. Canadian currency actually has
its own system of raised dots on the upper right hand corner
of bills similar to braille. And on the other side of the world, in catering to the visually impaired, India also followed suit in 2015 by issuing new bills with
blind-friendly raised marks, indicating their denomination. Number seven, substrate. Yes, even the so-called
paper used to print money is a security feature in and of itself. I say so-called since
many bills are in fact printed on something that
more closely resembles the clothes you’re wearing. For example, the material
the Federal Reserve uses for their money, known as rag paper, is made up of 3/4 cotton and 1/4 linen and is more durable
than conventional paper. As a result of the printing process, which subjects notes to many
thousands of pounds of pressure it also contributes to a crisp texture that can’t be achieved by
simple run-of-the-mill paper. If you find yourself
in possession of a note that doesn’t feel quite right, there are counterfeit pens
available that you can purchase which can carry a substance
that contains iodine which, when exposed to cellulose, the primary ingredient of normal paper, will turn a dark blue indicating a fake. A number of countries including Canada, Australia, the UK and Malaysia, have recently adopted a
synthetic polymer instead which feels like plastic and is waterproof and more importantly,
even harder to fabricate. These plastic polymers are
also more durable and cleaner than conventional paper notes. Number six, color shifting inks. Almost all modern
currencies also implement color shifting ink in the
printing of their money. Also called optically variable ink, it’s designed to refract
light at different frequencies depending on which
angle it is viewed from. On the American $50 bill for example, the number 50 switches
between copper or bright green depending on how you
tilt the bill to the eye. The same can be viewed on
the bottom of the $20 bill, where color shifting
metallic flecks in the ink produce a gold-green contrast while the eagle and shield image has been embossed with sparkly ink. For counterfeiters, the
problem is two-fold. First, conventional name-brand
scanners and printers can only produce text and
designs at a fixed angle. And second, there are only
a handful of companies who are permitted to manufacture
the special ink required. However, this wasn’t a problem
for Canadian counterfeiter, Frank Bourassa who managed
to forge nearly $250 million in American bills by
relying on a cheap foil to mimic color shifting ink. Number five, red and blue fibers. Since 1879, a single company, Crane & Co, has been responsible for
producing the rag paper which American money is printed on. As we have already seen, the makeup of the rag paper substrate is already quite difficult to manufacture. But in order to make
counterfeiting even harder, all bills also have tiny, near microscopic blue and red fibers. Yes, that’s right, your greenbacks aren’t
entirely green afterall. These randomized, patriotic squiggles are actually added during the initial processing phase of the paper and are therefore embedded in the bill. Many counterfeiters attempt to mimic these by inking them in with
very fine red and blue pens but even to the unaided eye, a phony bill can usually be identified because of the reflection, indentation, and thickness that the ink creates. Number four, planchettes. Another clever security
feature that occurs during the manufacturing process is the inclusion of planchettes. You’ve probably noticed these on bills and not given them a second thought but they’re almost as
difficult to reproduce as red and blue fibers and they appear in a number
of different currencies, including Canadian money. Essentially they are small,
randomly placed circular dots and are luminescent and will
glow when exposed to UV light. Because they’re added to the pulp during the papermaking process, in many cases, they can be picked off. Conversely on counterfeit bills, they are often printed on and attempting to remove them will only scratch the bill. Number three, chopmarks. These are an older
anti-counterfeiting technique which became popular in China during its expansion in the 1700s, but they still show up occasionally on other contemporary currencies. They often appear as
nicks or cuts on coins to ensure they weren’t plated fakes. But in other cases, they
are stamps or punches that helped vendors or
banks to easily verify that a bill or coin was indeed genuine. A moneychanger or bank would have its own unique stamp or punch,
often a secret symbol. Later, if they encountered
currency with the same mark, they would know it was one
they had originally marked as not a counterfeit. While this practice has
mostly fallen out of favor, examples of chopmarks still show up on American bills occasionally, especially if you happen
to have been traveling in foreign countries where
they use the same currency. Number two, transparent window. With a number of countries switching to money made of polymer, one prominent security feature is the presence of
transparent windows in bills and these are nearly irreproducible. This is basically an advanced modern take on the watermarks you see on paper money. On the Canadian $20 bill for example, there is a semi-transparent window with a metallic picture of the Queen as well as transparent maple leaves. And on the $100 bill, similar transparent windows
contain a hidden image that matches the portrait. Lastly, all new bills also
feature a small window that when viewed up close against the background light source produces a hidden number that
matches the denomination. All of this taken into account makes it much easier for banks and vendors to see through potential fakes. Number one, color optic technology. Although not yet on the market, this is a security feature that will hopefully appear on
currency in the near future, and was too cool not to include. You have to give kudos to the
natural world for this idea. Color optic, developed at Simon
Fraser University in Canada, is a new anti-counterfeiting measure that borrows from the
blue morpho butterfly. This insect is famous for the beautiful, three-dimensional
iridescence of its wings. But that stunning color
isn’t reproduced by pigments. Rather, the wings themselves have millions of tiny holes in them which trap light and then reflect
back a specific frequency, in this case, the shorter
wavelength blue spectrum. When held up to a direct
source of light, like the sun, the blue morpho’s wings actually appear as almost transparent. Color optic is attempting
to do the same thing by creating strips that have millions of holes punched into them that are only 100 nanometers wide. These strips could then be
applied to bank notes and bills and would be virtually
impossible to forge. If you enjoyed this video, and learned something new, then please remember to subscribe by clicking that button below. It will help you keep notified so you don’t miss out on anymore interesting knowledge. Thanks for watching.