Study of Physical Properties of Soil To Study pH of Different Types of Soil Materials Required: Test tubes, distilled water, roadside soil,
garden soil, humus rich soil and riverside soil, droppers, funnel and filter paper. Procedure: Let’s first prepare the soil solution.
Take roadside soil from the watch glass and dissolve it into the beaker containing water
to make soil solution. Similarly, repeat the same procedure for other
soil samples. Take a funnel, place a filter paper in it
and keep it on a test tube. Take roadside soil solution and filter the
solution through the filter paper and collect the filtrates in a test tube.
Repeat the same procedure for other samples with fresh filter papers.
The soil solution is now ready for testing ph. Using pH Paper Materials Required: Soil solutions, droppers, pH paper booklet
and a tile. Procedure: Take a pH paper booklet.
Tear pH paper strips from the booklet and place 4 strips on the tile.
Using a dropper, take some roadside soil solution from the test tube.
Put 1 to 2 drops of solution on the first pH strip on the tile.
Using fresh droppers, do the same procedure for garden soil, humus rich and riverside
soil. Wait for some time for the pH paper strip
to dry. Note the colour and compare with the colour
chart given on the broad range indicator paper and get a rough estimate of pH of the sample
solutions. Observations: We can observe that the roadside soil has
pH 7, garden soil and humus rich soil have ph 6 and riverside soil has pH 8. Using Universal Indicator Solution Materials Required: Soil solutions, dropper and universal pH indicator
solution. Procedure: Using a dropper, take some universal indicator
solution. Put 5 drops of indicator solution into the
test tube that contain water samples from roadside soil, garden soil, humus rich and
riverside soil. Note the colour developed and compare it with
the colour chart. Observation: We can observe that the roadside soil has
pH 7, garden soil and humus rich soil have ph 6 and riverside soil has pH 8. To Study Moisture Content of Soil Materials Required: Garden soil, crucibles, roadside soil, weighing
balance, burner and wire gauze. Procedure: Take watch glass containing garden soil and
put it into a crucible. Weigh the crucible with soil sample on a weighing
balance. Take crucible and place it over the Bunsen
burner. Heat the soil for some time till the soil
becomes dry. Weigh the crucible again to record the weight
of dry soil. Take watch glass containing roadside soil
and put it into a crucible. Weigh the crucible with soil sample on a weighing
balance. Take crucible and place it over the Bunsen
burner. Heat the soil for some time till the soil
becomes dry. Weigh the crucible again to record the weight
of dry soil. Observation Record the initial and final weights of each
sample and the difference between initial and final weights in the form of a table. Conclusion Garden soil shows higher difference between
initial and final weight indicating higher moisture content in the garden soil than the
roadside soil. Water Holding Capacity of Soil Materials Required: Soil sample from garden, mortar and pestle,
filter paper, tin boxes with perforated bottoms, glass rod, small glass rods, Petri dish and
weighing balance. Procedure Take watch glass containing garden soil and
put it into a mortar. Using a pestle, grind the sample into fine
powder. Take a filter paper and place it in the bottom
of the tin box. Weigh the tin along with the filter paper
and note its weight. Transfer the fine powdered soil sample into
the tin box. Take a glass rod and tap the box gently several
times, so that soil is compactly filled and forms a uniform layer at the top.
Weigh the tin box along with soil sample and note its weight.
Take a Petri dish filled with water. Take two small glass rods and place them parallel
to and at a small distance from each other. Place the soil filled tin on the two glass
rods in such a manner that its bottom is in contact with water.
Leave the set up undisturbed till water appears on the upper surface of the soil. Wait till
entire soil surface is wet. Remove the tin and allow all the gravitational
water to flow out from the bottom. When no more water percolates, wipe the bottom
to dry it with a filter paper. Weigh them again and note its weight. Observation Record all the values into the table and calculate
the percentage of water holding capacity of the garden soil. To Study the Texture of the Soil Materials Required: 50 gram soil sample, measuring cylinder and
a beaker containing water. Procedure: Take 50 gm of soil sample and put it into
a measuring cylinder. Take beaker containing water and pour some
water into the measuring cylinder. Shake the measuring cylinder to mix the sample.
Allow the soil particles to settle down. Record the thickness of the layers formed
by different types of particles in the measuring cylinder.
The thickness of clay particles in measuring cylinder is 21 percentage, silt particles
is 18 percentage and sand particles is 61 percentage.
Using a textural triangle, draw lines corresponding to the percentage of clay, silt and sand.
The lines which intersect indicate the soil type we have.
Here, the sample soil consists of 21 percentage clay, 61 percentage sand, and 18 percentage
silt; hence, the soil type is sandy clay loam.